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J Med Food. 2009 Oct;12(5):1111-8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0256.

Antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of purple grape juice--organic and conventional--in adult rats.

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Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil.


Oxidative damage to biomolecules occurs by the accumulation of molecular damage due to free radicals and/or a diminution of antioxidant protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection of organic and conventional purple grape juices in brain, liver, and plasma from adult Wistar rats (7 months old) against the oxidative damage provoked by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). Adult rats were divided into three groups (control, conventional purple grape juice, and organic purple grape juice). Half of the rats received CCl(4), and the other half received the vehicle (vegetable oil). The chemical analytical determination showed that the highest levels of total phenolic, resveratrol, and catechins were seen in organic purple grape juices. Considering the treatment groups, it was observed that in all tissues (brain structures and liver) and plasma, CCl(4) treatment increased the lipid peroxidation (LP) levels. Both grape juices were capable to reduce LP levels in cerebral cortex and hippocampus; however, in the striatum and substantia nigra only the organic grape juice reduced LP level. CCl(4) caused an increase in catalase activity in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and substantia nigra and in superoxide dismutase activity in substantia nigra. This increase was reduced by both juices in substantia nigra and hippocampus structures (P < .05). In the alkaline version of the comet assay performed on whole blood, it was observed that CCl(4) was capable of inducing mainly DNA damage class 4 and 3 frequencies, which was significantly reduced in groups that received both purple grape juices. This implies that both grape juices have an important antigenotoxic activity.

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