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Endocrinology. 2009 Dec;150(12):5273-83. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-0628. Epub 2009 Oct 23.

Poly(Adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition counteracts multiple manifestations of experimental type 1 diabetic nephropathy.

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  • 1Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA.


This study was aimed at evaluating the role for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in early nephropathy associated with type 1 diabetes. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats were maintained with or without treatment with one of two structurally unrelated PARP inhibitors, 1,5-isoquinolinediol (ISO) and 10-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-2H-7-oxa-1,2-diaza-benzo[de] anthracen-3-one (GPI-15427), at 3 mg/kg(-1) x d(-1) ip and 30 mg/kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively, for 10 wk after the first 2 wk without treatment. PARP activity in the renal cortex was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins. Variables of diabetic nephropathy in urine and renal cortex were evaluated by ELISA, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and colorimetry. Urinary albumin excretion was increased about 4-fold in diabetic rats, and this increase was prevented by ISO and GPI-15427. PARP inhibition counteracted diabetes-associated increase in poly(ADP-ribose) immunoreactivities in renal glomeruli and tubuli and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated protein level. Renal concentrations of TGF-beta(1), vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelin-1, TNF-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, lipid peroxidation products, and nitrotyrosine were increased in diabetic rats, and all these changes as well as an increase in urinary TNF-alpha excretion were completely or partially prevented by ISO and GPI-15427. PARP inhibition counteracted diabetes-induced up-regulation of endothelin (B) receptor, podocyte loss, accumulation of collagen-alpha1 (IY), periodic acid-Schiff-positive substances, fibronectin, and advanced glycation end-products in the renal cortex. In conclusion, PARP activation is implicated in multiple changes characteristic for early nephropathy associated with type 1 diabetes. These findings provide rationale for development and further studies of PARP inhibitors and PARP inhibitor-containing combination therapies.

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