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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Nov;10(11):755-64. doi: 10.1038/nrm2780.

Building ubiquitin chains: E2 enzymes at work.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. yihongy@mail.nih.gov

Abstract

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin chains can change their localization, activity and/or stability. Although ubiquitylation requires the concerted action of ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s), it is the E2s that have recently emerged as key mediators of chain assembly. These enzymes are able to govern the switch from ubiquitin chain initiation to elongation, regulate the processivity of chain formation and establish the topology of assembled chains, thereby determining the consequences of ubiquitylation for the modified proteins.

PMID:
19851334
PMCID:
PMC3107738
DOI:
10.1038/nrm2780
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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