Send to

Choose Destination
Arch Oral Biol. 2009 Dec;54(12):1099-104. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2009.09.009. Epub 2009 Oct 21.

Effects of smoking on salivary C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links of type I collagen and osteocalcin levels.

Author information

Department of Periodontology, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.



This study was planned to investigate whether smoker patients with inflammatory periodontal disease exhibit different salivary concentrations of C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links of type I collagen (ICTP) and osteocalcin (OC) compared to the non-smoker and/or ex-smoker counterparts.


Whole saliva samples, full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings were obtained from 67 otherwise healthy patients with inflammatory periodontal disease. According to self-reports there were 34 smokers, 22 non-smokers and 11 ex-smokers. Salivary cotinine, ICTP and OC levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassays.


Salivary cotinine measurements confirmed self-reports about smoking. Smoker patients revealed significantly higher plaque index values than non-smokers (p<0.05). Bleeding on probing values were significantly lower in smoker group than ex-smoker group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the study groups in salivary ICTP levels (p>0.05). OC levels in smoker group was significantly lower than the other groups (p<0.001). Salivary ICTP levels correlated negatively with number of teeth present (p<0.05), positively with bleeding on probing (p<0.01). Salivary OC levels correlated negatively with years smoked (p<0.01).


Within the limits of this study, smoking seems to suppress salivary osteocalcin level but ICTP levels seem not to be affected by smoking status. This suppression in OC levels may be one mechanism of deteriorating effects of smoking on periodontal health.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center