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J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Jan 15;185(2):264-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2009.10.008. Epub 2009 Oct 20.

Real-time glutamate measurements in the putamen of awake rhesus monkeys using an enzyme-based human microelectrode array prototype.

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Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0098, USA.


Commonly used for research studies in the central nervous system, microdialysis has revealed a link between dysregulation of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and ischemia and seizure, however limitations like slow temporal resolution have stalled the advancement of microdialysis as a diagnostic tool. We have developed and extensively characterized an enzyme-based microelectrode array technology for second-by-second in vivo amperometric measurements of glutamate in the mammalian CNS. The current studies demonstrated the ability of a human microelectrode array prototype (Spencer-Gerhardt-2 (SG-2)) to measure tonic and phasic glutamate neurotransmission in the putamen of unanesthetized non-human primates. We also showed that the SG-2 remains functional following sterilization. Ability to monitor dynamic changes in glutamate in real-time may assist the development of clinical algorithms to potentially alert care-providers prior to onset of overt ischemia or seizure, or provide neurosurgeons with second-by-second measurements of rapid changes in extracellular glutamate which could help guide surgical procedures or aid in interventional strategies.

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