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Obes Rev. 2009 Nov;10 Suppl 2:46-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00661.x.

Delta sleep-inducing peptide and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper: potential links between circadian mechanisms and obesity?

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Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.


As the obesity pandemic has accelerated, investigators have begun to explore alternative mechanisms linking circadian biology and sleep to adipose tissue metabolism and obesity. This manuscript reviews recent findings in murine and human models demonstrating the oscillatory expression of the mRNAs encoding the core circadian regulatory proteins in adipose tissue. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of circadian oscillating genes have been used to identify the 'delta sleep-inducing peptide immunoreactor', also known as 'glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ)', as a potential link in this chain. The GILZ gene has been found to differentially regulate stromal stem cell adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in a reciprocal manner. In adipose and other metabolically active tissues, the circadian oscillation of GILZ expression is subject to entrainment by external stimuli. Together, these observations suggest that GILZ is an attractive candidate for future studies evaluating the role of circadian mechanisms in adipose tissue physiology and pathology.

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