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J Urol. 2009 Dec;182(6):2915-9. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.08.017. Epub 2009 Oct 28.

Intrarenal artery delineation with ultra high resolution, flat panel based, volume computerized tomography: outer limits of spatial resolution.

Author information

1
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

New methods of noninvasive high resolution imaging may improve the delineation of tumor microvessels and, thus, be of significant help in surgical planning and cost-effective monitoring of novel anti-angiogenic therapy. We determined the maximum delineation of intrarenal microvessels with a novel flat panel based volume computerized tomography system in an experimental setting.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We prospectively evaluated 13 porcine renal specimens for intrarenal vessel delineation using a prototype gantry based, flat panel, cone beam computerized tomography system. The gantry incorporates an array of a 40 x 30 cm(2) CsI amorphous silicon flat panel detector consisting of a 2,048 x 1,536 matrix. After catheterizing the renal artery with a 5Fr end hole catheter a contrast enhanced scan was performed using BaS as contrast medium at a dilution of 200 mg/ml. The diameter of all definable arterial branches was determined using a software tool based on Medical Imaging and Interaction Toolkit, allowing semi-automatic segmentation of the vessel tree. In step 1 the vessel tree is segmented by a 3-dimensional region growing algorithm. Following its medial axis the vessel tree is extracted and converted to a representation, including the diameter of the vessels.

RESULTS:

In each kidney an average +/- SD of 47,454 +/- 22,382 arterial branches could be delineated. The diameter of the branches was 0.029 (mean 0.032 +/- 0.0025) to 3.444 mm (mean 1.813 +/- 0.6139) with a median of 0.263 mm. Of visible intrarenal arteries 2.7% had a vessel diameter of 0.029 mm.

CONCLUSIONS:

Flat panel based volume computerized tomography can visualize intrarenal microvessels down to a diameter of 0.03 mm. It may improve the assessment of renal microvessel architecture in healthy patients and in those with pathological conditions.

PMID:
19846147
DOI:
10.1016/j.juro.2009.08.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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