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Am J Transplant. 2009 Dec;9(12):2800-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02851.x. Epub 2009 Oct 21.

Recurrent idiopathic membranous nephropathy: early diagnosis by protocol biopsies and treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies.

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1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Abstract

Membranous nephropathy (MN) recurs posttransplant in 42% of patients. We compared MN recurrence rates in a historical cohort transplanted between 1990 and 1999 and in a current cohort diagnosed by protocol biopsies, we analyzed the progression of the disease and we assessed the effects of anti-CD20 antibodies (Rituximab) on recurrent MN. The incidence of recurrent MN was similar in the historical (53%) and the current cohorts (41%), although in the later the diagnosis was made earlier (median, 4[2-21] months vs. 83[6-149], p = 0.002) and the disease was clinically milder. Twelve out of 14 patients (86%) with recurrent MN in the current cohort had progressive increases in proteinuria. Eight recipients were treated with Rituximab after their proteinuria increased from median, 211 mg/day (64-4898) at diagnosis to 4489 (898-13 855) (p = 0.038). Twelve months post-Rituximab, 75% of patients had either partial (PR) or complete remission (CR). After 24 months 6/7 (86%) had PR/CR and one patient relapsed. Posttreatment biopsies showed resorption of electron dense immune deposits in 6/7 cases and were negative for C3 (4/7) and IgG (3/7). Protocol biopsies allow early diagnosis of subclinical recurrent MN, which is often progressive. Treatment of recurrent MN with Rituximab is promising and should be evaluated in a prospective randomized controlled trial.

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