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JAMA. 2009 Oct 21;302(15):1666-73. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1463.

Cardiovascular diseases and risk of hip fracture.

Author information

1
Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Orthopaedics, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Recent studies indicate common etiologies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporotic fractures.

OBJECTIVES:

To examine the relation between CVD and risk of hip fracture in twins and evaluate the relative importance of genetics and lifestyle factors in this association.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

A cohort of all 31,936 Swedish twins born from 1914-1944 was followed up from the age of 50 years. The National Patient Registry identified twins with CVDs and fractures from 1964 through 2005. Time-dependent exposures using Cox proportional hazard regression models were evaluated.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Time to hip fracture after diagnosis of CVD.

RESULTS:

The crude absolute rate of hip fractures was 12.6 per 1000 person-years after a diagnosis of heart failure, 12.6 per 1000 person-years after a stroke, 6.6 per 1000 person-years after a diagnosis of peripheral atherosclerosis, and 5.2 per 1000 person-years after a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease compared with 1.2 per 1000 person-years for those without a CVD diagnosis. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of hip fracture after a diagnosis of heart failure was 4.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.43-5.63); after a stroke, the HR was 5.09 (95% CI, 4.18-6.20); after a diagnosis of peripheral atherosclerosis, the HR was 3.20 (95% CI, 2.28-4.50); and after an ischemic heart disease event, the HR was 2.32 (95% CI, 1.91-2.84). Identical twins without heart failure and stroke also had, after their co-twins had been exposed to these respective diseases, an increased rate of hip fracture. These sibling twins pseudoexposed for heart failure had a multivariable-adjusted HR of 3.74 (95% CI, 1.97-7.10) for hip fracture, whereas pseudoexposure for stroke had an HR of 2.29 (95% CI, 1.20-4.35).

CONCLUSIONS:

A diagnosis of CVD was significantly associated with risk of subsequent hip fracture. Increased risks in co-twins without an index diagnosis suggest genetic factors in the association between CVD and osteoporotic fractures.

PMID:
19843901
DOI:
10.1001/jama.2009.1463
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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