Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 1;69(21):8256-64. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1689. Epub 2009 Oct 20.

Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway induces urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis: identification in human tumors and confirmation in animal models.

Author information

1
Laboratories of Cancer Genetics, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA. chaonan.qian@vai.org

Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis is a deadly disease with an unclear tumorigenic mechanism. We conducted gene expression profiling on a set of human tumors of this type and identified a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT activation expression signature in 76.9% (n = 13) of our samples. Sequence analysis found both activating mutations of PIK3CA (13.6%, n = 22) and loss of heterozygosity at the PTEN locus (25%, n = 8). In contrast, none of the other subtypes of kidney neoplasms (e.g., clear-cell renal cell carcinoma) harbored PIK3CA mutations (n = 87; P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis of urothelial carcinoma samples found loss of PTEN protein expression (36.4%, n = 11) and elevation of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; 63.6%, n = 11). To confirm the role of the PI3K/AKT pathway in urothelial carcinoma, we generated mice containing biallelic inactivation of Pten in the urogenital epithelia. These mice developed typical renal pelvic urothelial carcinomas, with an incidence of 57.1% in mice older than 1 year. Laser capture microdissection followed by PCR confirmed the deletion of Pten exons 4 and 5 in the animal tumor cells. Immunohistochemical analyses showed increased phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6K levels in the animal tumors. Renal lymph node metastases were found in 15.8% of the animals with urothelial carcinoma. In conclusion, we identified and confirmed an important role for the PI3K/AKT pathway in the development of urothelial carcinoma and suggested that inhibitors of this pathway (e.g., mTOR inhibitor) may serve as effective therapeutic agents.

PMID:
19843858
PMCID:
PMC2783739
DOI:
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1689
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms

Substances

Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center