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Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 1;15(21):6658-64. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-3126. Epub 2009 Oct 20.

Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1: a new prognostic marker in prostate cancer.

Author information

1
Centre for Applied Medical Research, St. Vincent's Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

High serum levels of macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) are strongly associated with metastatic prostate cancer, suggesting MIC-1 is a biomarker for prostate cancer prognosis.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:

We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,442 Swedish men with a pathologically verified diagnosis of prostate cancer between 2001 and 2003. Blood was drawn either pretreatment (n = 431) or posttreatment (n = 1,011) and cases were followed for a mean time of 4.9 years (range, 0.1-6.8 years).

RESULTS:

MIC-1 serum levels independently predicted poor cancer-specific survival with an almost 3-fold higher cancer death rate in patients with serum levels in the highest quartile compared with men with serum levels in the lowest quartile (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.82-4.68). Pretreatment MIC-1 levels revealed an even stronger association with disease outcome with an 8-fold higher death rate in the highest compared with the lowest category (adjusted hazard ratio, 7.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-36.86). Among patients considered to have localized disease, MIC-1 significantly increased the discriminative capacity between indolent and lethal prostate cancer compared with the established prognostic markers clinical stage, pathologic grade, and prostate-specific antigen level (P = 0.016). A sequence variant in the MIC-1 gene was associated with decreased MIC-1 serum levels (P = 0.002) and decreased prostate cancer mortality (P = 0.003), suggesting a causative role of MIC-1 in prostate cancer prognosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Serum MIC-1 concentration is a novel biomarker capable of predicting prostate cancer prognosis.

PMID:
19843661
PMCID:
PMC3557964
DOI:
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-3126
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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