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J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Jan;50(1):73-80. doi: 10.1177/0091270009343694. Epub 2009 Oct 20.

Population pharmacokinetics of perphenazine in schizophrenia patients from CATIE: impact of race and smoking.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 46202, USA.


The goal of the study was to characterize population pharmacokinetics (PPK) for perphenazine in patients with schizophrenia from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE). Patients (n = 156) received 8 to 32 mg of perphenazine daily for 14 to 600 days for a total of 421 plasma concentrations measurements. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to determine PPK characteristics of perphenazine. One- and 2-compartment models with various random effect implementations and mixture distributions were evaluated. Objective function values and goodness-of-fit plots were used as model selection criteria. Age, weight, sex, race, smoking, and concomitant medications were evaluated as covariates. A 1-compartment linear model with proportional error best described the data. The population mean clearance and volume of distribution for perphenazine were 483 L/h and 18 200 L, respectively. Race and smoking status had significant impacts on perphenazine clearance estimates. In addition, the estimated population mean clearance was 48% higher in nonsmoking African Americans than in nonsmoking other races (512 L/h vs 346 L/h). Active smokers eliminated perphenazine 159 L/h faster than nonsmokers in each race. Clearances for smoking African Americans versus smokers in other races were 671 L/h versus 505 L/h, respectively.

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