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Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2010 Feb;23(1):103-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2009.00648.x. Epub 2009 Oct 20.

AKT2 is a downstream target of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (Grm1).

Author information

1
Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

Abstract

We reported earlier on the oncogenic properties of Grm1 by demonstrating that stable Grm1-mouse-melanocytic clones proliferate in the absence of growth supplement and anchorage in vitro. In addition, these clones also exhibit aggressive tumorigenic phenotypes in vivo with short latency in tumor formation in both immunodeficient and syngeneic mice. We also detected strong activation of AKT in allograft tumors specifically AKT2 as the predominant isoform involved. In parallel, we assessed several human melanoma biopsy samples and found again that AKT2 was the predominantly activated AKT in these human melanoma biopsies. In cultured stable Grm1-mouse-melanocytic clones, as well as an metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (Grm1) expressing human melanoma cell line, C8161, stimulation of Grm1 by its agonist led to the activation of AKT, while preincubation with Grm1-antagonist abolished Grm1-agonist-induced AKT activation. In addition, a reduction in tumor volume of Grm1-mouse-melanocytic-allografts was detected in the presence of small interfering AKT2 RNA (siAKT2). Taken together, these results showed that, in addition to the MAPK pathway previously reported being a downstream target of stimulated Grm1, AKT2 is another downstream target in Grm1 mediated melanocyte transformation.

PMID:
19843246
PMCID:
PMC2810105
DOI:
10.1111/j.1755-148X.2009.00648.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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