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J Phys Chem B. 2009 Nov 12;113(45):14854-67. doi: 10.1021/jp904460f.

Linear and nonlinear spectroscopy of a porphyrin-squaraine-porphyrin conjugated system.

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CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32826, USA.


The linear and nonlinear absorption properties of a squaraine-bridged porphyrin dimer (POR-SQU-POR) are investigated using femto-, pico-, and nanosecond pulses to understand intramolecular processes, obtain molecular optical parameters, and perform modeling of the excited-state dynamics. The optical behavior of POR-SQU-POR is compared with its separate porphyrin and squaraine constituent moieties. Linear spectroscopic studies include absorption, fluorescence, excitation and emission anisotropy, and quantum yield measurements. Nonlinear spectroscopic studies are performed across a wide range (approximately 150 fs, approximately 25 ps, and approximately 5 ns) of pulsewidths and include two-photon absorption (2PA), single and double pump-probe, and Z-scan measurements with detailed analysis of excited-state absorption induced by both one- and two-photon absorption processes. The 2PA from the constituent moieties shows relatively small 2PA cross sections; below 10 GM (1 GM = 1 x 10(-50) cm4 s/photon) for the porphyrin constituent and below 100 GM for the squaraine constituent except near their one-photon resonances. In stark contrast, the composite POR-SQU-POR molecule shows 2PA cross sections greater than 10(3) GM over most of the spectral range from 850 to 1600 nm (the minimum value being 780 GM at 1600 nm). The maximum value is approximately 11,000 GM near the Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 1064 nm. This broad spectral range of large 2PA cross sections is unprecedented in any other molecular system and can be explained by intramolecular charge transfer. A theoretical quantum-chemical analysis in combination with different experimental techniques allows insight into the energy-level structure and origin of the nonlinear absorption behavior of POR-SQU-POR.

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