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Diabetologia. 2010 Jan;53(1):66-9. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1559-5. Epub 2009 Oct 20.

Short-form measures of diabetes-related emotional distress: the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID)-5 and PAID-1.

Author information

1
Clinical Psychology Programme, School of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. brian.mcguire@nuigalway.ie

Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:

We wanted to identify a five-item short form of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale and a single-item measure for rapid screening of diabetes-related emotional distress.

METHODS:

Using an existing database of 1,153 patients with diabetes, we conducted a principal-components analysis to identify a set of five items and then conducted a reliability analysis and validity checks. From those five items, we identified the item with the strongest psychometric properties as a one-item screening tool.

RESULTS:

We identified a reliable and valid short version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) comprising five of the emotional-distress questions of the full PAID items (PAID-5, with items 3, 6, 12, 16, 19). The PAID-5 has satisfactory sensitivity (94%) and specificity (89%) for recognition of diabetes-related emotional distress. We also identified a one-item screening tool, the PAID-1 (Question 12: Worrying about the future and the possibility of serious complications), which has concurrent sensitivity and specificity of about 80% for the recognition of diabetes-related emotional distress.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:

The PAID-5 and PAID-1 appear to be psychometrically robust short-form measures of diabetes-related emotional distress.

PMID:
19841892
DOI:
10.1007/s00125-009-1559-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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