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Neuron. 2009 Oct 15;64(1):110-22. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.08.039.

Immune activation in brain aging and neurodegeneration: too much or too little?

Author information

1
Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Abstract

Until recently, the brain was studied almost exclusively by neuroscientists and the immune system by immunologists, fuelling the notion that these systems represented two isolated entities. However, as more data suggest an important role of the immune system in regulating the progression of brain aging and neurodegenerative disease, it has become clear that the crosstalk between these systems can no longer be ignored and a new interdisciplinary approach is necessary. A central question that emerges is whether immune and inflammatory pathways become hyperactivated with age and promote degeneration or whether insufficient immune responses, which fail to cope with age-related stress, may contribute to disease. We try to explore here the consequences of gain versus loss of function with an emphasis on microglia as sensors and effectors of immune function in the brain, and we discuss the potential role of the peripheral environment in neurodegenerative diseases.

PMID:
19840553
PMCID:
PMC2834890
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuron.2009.08.039
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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