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Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):649-62. doi: 10.1080/01635580902825654.

Gamma tocopherol upregulates the expression of 15-S-HETE and induces growth arrest through a PPAR gamma-dependent mechanism in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA. campbese@etsu.edu

Abstract

Chronic inflammation and dietary fat consumption correlates with an increase in prostate cancer. Our previous studies in the colon have demonstrated that gamma-tocopherol treatment could upregulate the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated preceptors (PPAR) gamma, a nuclear receptor involved in fatty acid metabolism as well modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we explored the possibility that gamma-tocopherol could induce growth arrest in PC-3 prostate cancer cells through the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. Growth arrest (40%) and PPAR gamma mRNA and protein upregulation was achieved with gamma-tocopherol within 6 h. gamma-Tocopherol-mediated growth arrest was demonstrated to be PPAR gamma dependent using the agonist GW9662 and a PPAR gamma dominant negative vector. gamma-tocopherol was shown not to be a direct PPAR gamma ligand, but rather 15-S-HETE (an endogenous PPAR gamma ligand) was upregulated by gamma-tocopherol treatment. 15-Lipoxygenase-2, a tumor suppressor and the enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to 15-S-HETE, was upregulated at 3 h following gamma-tocopherol treatment. Expression of proteins downstream of the PPAR gamma pathway were examined. Cyclin D1, cyclin D3, bcl-2, and NFkappa B proteins were found to be downregulated following gamma-tocopherol treatment. These data demonstrate that the growth arrest mediated by gamma-tocopherol follows a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism.

PMID:
19838939
DOI:
10.1080/01635580902825654
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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