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Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):649-62. doi: 10.1080/01635580902825654.

Gamma tocopherol upregulates the expression of 15-S-HETE and induces growth arrest through a PPAR gamma-dependent mechanism in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.

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Department of Biochemistry, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA.


Chronic inflammation and dietary fat consumption correlates with an increase in prostate cancer. Our previous studies in the colon have demonstrated that gamma-tocopherol treatment could upregulate the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated preceptors (PPAR) gamma, a nuclear receptor involved in fatty acid metabolism as well modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we explored the possibility that gamma-tocopherol could induce growth arrest in PC-3 prostate cancer cells through the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. Growth arrest (40%) and PPAR gamma mRNA and protein upregulation was achieved with gamma-tocopherol within 6 h. gamma-Tocopherol-mediated growth arrest was demonstrated to be PPAR gamma dependent using the agonist GW9662 and a PPAR gamma dominant negative vector. gamma-tocopherol was shown not to be a direct PPAR gamma ligand, but rather 15-S-HETE (an endogenous PPAR gamma ligand) was upregulated by gamma-tocopherol treatment. 15-Lipoxygenase-2, a tumor suppressor and the enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to 15-S-HETE, was upregulated at 3 h following gamma-tocopherol treatment. Expression of proteins downstream of the PPAR gamma pathway were examined. Cyclin D1, cyclin D3, bcl-2, and NFkappa B proteins were found to be downregulated following gamma-tocopherol treatment. These data demonstrate that the growth arrest mediated by gamma-tocopherol follows a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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