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J Biol Chem. 2009 Dec 4;284(49):34331-41. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.027698. Epub 2009 Oct 16.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase aggregate formation participates in oxidative stress-induced cell death.

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Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Izumisano 5988531, Osaka, Japan.


Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)(2) is a classic glycolytic enzyme that also mediates cell death by its nuclear translocation under oxidative stress. Meanwhile, we previously presented that oxidative stress induced disulfide-bonded GAPDH aggregation in vitro. Here, we propose that GAPDH aggregate formation might participate in oxidative stress-induced cell death both in vitro and in vivo. We show that human GAPDH amyloid-like aggregate formation depends on the active site cysteine-152 (Cys-152) in vitro. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, treatment with dopamine decreases the cell viability concentration-dependently (IC(50) = 202 microM). Low concentrations of dopamine (50-100 microM) mainly cause nuclear translocation of GAPDH, whereas the levels of GAPDH aggregates correlate with high concentrations of dopamine (200-300 microM)-induced cell death. Doxycycline-inducible overexpression of wild-type GAPDH in SH-SY5Y, but not the Cys-152-substituted mutant (C152A-GAPDH), accelerates cell death accompanying both endogenous and exogenous GAPDH aggregate formation in response to high concentrations of dopamine. Deprenyl, a blocker of GAPDH nuclear translocation, fails to inhibit the aggregation both in vitro and in cells but reduced cell death in SH-SY5Y treated with only a low concentration of dopamine (100 microM). These results suggest that GAPDH participates in oxidative stress-induced cell death via an alternative mechanism in which aggregation but not nuclear translocation of GAPDH plays a role. Moreover, we observe endogenous GAPDH aggregate formation in nigra-striatum dopaminergic neurons after methamphetamine treatment in mice. In transgenic mice overexpressing wild-type GAPDH, increased dopaminergic neuron loss and GAPDH aggregate formation are observed. These data suggest a critical role of GAPDH aggregates in oxidative stress-induced brain damage.

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