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J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jan;118(1-2):41-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2009.09.016. Epub 2009 Oct 27.

Regulation of cell cycle and RNA transcription genes identified by microarray analysis of PC-3 human prostate cancer cells treated with luteolin.

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1
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Abstract

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the United States. Our previous studies have shown that ligands for the nuclear type II [(3)H]estradiol binding site such as luteolin significantly inhibit prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo; however, the role of these ligands in cell growth and proliferation is poorly understood. In order to further elucidate the molecular mechanism through which luteolin exerts its effects on PC-3 cells, cRNA microarray analyses was performed on 38,500 genes to determine the genes altered by luteolin treatment. The expression of 3331 genes was changed greater than 1.2-fold after luteolin treatment. Analysis of the altered genes identified two pathways that were significantly affected by luteolin. The Cell Cycle Pathway contained 22 down-regulated genes (including polo-like kinase 1, cyclin A2, cyclin E2 and proliferation cell nuclear antigen) and one up-regulated gene (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B). In addition, 13 genes were down-regulated by luteolin in the RNA Transcription Pathway. Real-time polymerase chain reactions and western blots verified the observations from the microarray. In addition, two synthetic, chemically distinct type II ligands, ZN-2 and BMHPC, mimicked the effects of luteolin on gene expression at the mRNA and protein level in PC-3 cells. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that luteolin exerts its effects on genes by altering the acetylation state of promoter-associated histones. Taken together, the data suggest that type II ligands inhibit cell growth and proliferation through epigenetic control of key genes involved in cell cycle progression and RNA transcription.

PMID:
19837161
PMCID:
PMC2818318
DOI:
10.1016/j.jsbmb.2009.09.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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