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J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jan;118(1-2):41-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2009.09.016. Epub 2009 Oct 27.

Regulation of cell cycle and RNA transcription genes identified by microarray analysis of PC-3 human prostate cancer cells treated with luteolin.

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Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the United States. Our previous studies have shown that ligands for the nuclear type II [(3)H]estradiol binding site such as luteolin significantly inhibit prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo; however, the role of these ligands in cell growth and proliferation is poorly understood. In order to further elucidate the molecular mechanism through which luteolin exerts its effects on PC-3 cells, cRNA microarray analyses was performed on 38,500 genes to determine the genes altered by luteolin treatment. The expression of 3331 genes was changed greater than 1.2-fold after luteolin treatment. Analysis of the altered genes identified two pathways that were significantly affected by luteolin. The Cell Cycle Pathway contained 22 down-regulated genes (including polo-like kinase 1, cyclin A2, cyclin E2 and proliferation cell nuclear antigen) and one up-regulated gene (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B). In addition, 13 genes were down-regulated by luteolin in the RNA Transcription Pathway. Real-time polymerase chain reactions and western blots verified the observations from the microarray. In addition, two synthetic, chemically distinct type II ligands, ZN-2 and BMHPC, mimicked the effects of luteolin on gene expression at the mRNA and protein level in PC-3 cells. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that luteolin exerts its effects on genes by altering the acetylation state of promoter-associated histones. Taken together, the data suggest that type II ligands inhibit cell growth and proliferation through epigenetic control of key genes involved in cell cycle progression and RNA transcription.

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