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J Invertebr Pathol. 2010 Jan;103(1):59-64. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2009.10.005. Epub 2009 Oct 15.

Sex linkage of CpGV resistance in a heterogeneous field strain of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.).

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Laboratory of Biotechnological Crop Protection, Department of Phytopathology, Agricultural Service Center Palatinate (DLR Rheinpfalz), Breitenweg 71, Neustadt a. d. Wstr., Germany.


The occurrence of codling moth populations in European apple orchards that were not controlled by Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is the first reported case of field resistance against a baculovirus control agent. A monogenic dominant sex-linked mode of inheritance was previously demonstrated in single-pair crosses between a homogeneous resistant (CpRR1) and a susceptible (CpS) laboratory strain of codling moth. However, resistant field populations (CpR) are more heterogeneous in their levels of resistance, and the possibility that they could harbor different resistance genes to CpRR1 had not been directly addressed. Here we report single pair crossing experiments using a resistant codling moth strain collected from an apple orchard in the southwest of Germany. Single-pair crosses within the field strain revealed a genetic basis to the heterogeneity of CpR concerning CpGV resistance. Hybrid crosses to a susceptible laboratory strain and backcrosses of the F1 generation to the resistant CpR strain confirmed that the homogeneous CpRR1 and the heterogeneous field strain CpR share the same mode of inheritance. Thus the variable levels of CpGV resistance in field populations is likely due to frequency differences of the same resistance-conferring gene, rather than different genes, which will facilitate future efforts to monitor and manage resistance.

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