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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010 Mar;16(3):320-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.10.006. Epub 2009 Oct 14.

Partial T cell-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation following reduced-intensity conditioning creates a platform for immunotherapy with donor lymphocyte infusion and recipient dendritic cell vaccination in multiple myeloma.

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Department of Hematology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 8, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.


Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in multiple myeloma (MM) may induce a curative graft-versus-myeloma (GVM) effect. Major drawback in unmanipulated reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) SCT is the risk of severe and longstanding graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). This study demonstrates that transplantation with a partial T cell-depleted graft creates a platform for boosting GVM immunity by preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and recipient dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, with limited GVHD. All 20MM patients engrafted successfully. Chimerism analysis in 19 patients evaluable at 3 months revealed that 7 patients were complete donor, whereas 12 patients were mixed chimeric. Grade II acute GVHD (aGVHD) occurred in 7 patients (35%) and only 4 patients (21%) developed chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Fourteen patients received posttransplantation immunotherapy, 8 preemptive DLI, 5 patients both DLI and DC vaccination, and 1 patient DC vaccination only. DC vaccination was associated with limited toxicity, and none of these patients developed GVHD. Importantly, overall treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 1 year was low (10%). Moreover, the overall survival (OS) is 84% with median follow-up of 27 months, and none of the patients died from progressive disease. These findings illustrate that this novel approach is associated with limited GVHD and mortality, thus creating an ideal platform for adjuvant immunotherapy.

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