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Can J Psychiatry. 2009 Oct;54(10):673-83.

Comorbidity in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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Adult ADHD Research, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, Quebec.



To examine the prevalence of comorbid Axis I (current and lifetime) and II disorders in adult men and women with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).


Adult patients (n = 447; 266 men, 181 women) received comprehensive assessments for ADHD and Axis I and II disorders. Adults were aged between 17 and 74 years. Among the patients diagnosed with ADHD (n = 335), there were those with ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) (n = 199), hyperactive-impulsive subtype (ADHD-H) (n = 24), or combined ADHD subtype (ADHD-C) (n = 112). Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between adults with and without ADHD on Axis I and II disorders.


Adults with ADHD, compared with those without ADHD, had higher rates of Axis I (46.9% and 27.31%) and Axis II (50.7% and 38.2%) disorders. Adults with ADHD-C were more likely to have mood disorder, anxiety, conduct disorder, and substance use disorder as well as obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, passive-aggressive personality disorder, depressive personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Men with ADHD were more likely to have antisocial personality disorder and had higher rates of current drug abuse than women with ADHD. Women with ADHD had higher rates of past and current panic disorder, and past anorexia and bulimia. Women with ADHD were more likely to have BPD than men with ADHD.


Adults with ADHD have very high rates of comorbid Axis I and II disorders, with differences found between men and women on certain comorbid disorders.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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