Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Public Health. 2009 Dec;99(12):2224-9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.155234. Epub 2009 Oct 15.

Audience segmentation as a social-marketing tool in health promotion: use of the risk perception attitude framework in HIV prevention in Malawi.

Author information

Center for Communication Program, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Health, Behavior & Society, 624 N. Broadway, No. 739, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.



We sought to determine whether individuals' risk perceptions and efficacy beliefs could be used to meaningfully segment audiences to assist interventions that seek to change HIV-related behaviors.


A household-level survey of individuals (N=968) was conducted in 4 districts in Malawi. On the basis of responses about perceptions of risk and beliefs about personal efficacy, we used cluster analysis to create 4 groups within the risk perception attitude framework: responsive (high risk, strong efficacy), avoidance (high risk, weak efficacy), proactive (low risk, strong efficacy), and indifference (low risk, weak efficacy). We ran analysis of covariance models (controlling for known predictors) to determine how membership in the risk perception attitude framework groups would affect knowledge about HIV, HIV-testing uptake, and condom use.


A significant association was found between membership in 1 or more of the 4 risk perception attitude framework groups and the 3 study variables of interest: knowledge about HIV (F8, 956=20.77; P<.001), HIV testing uptake (F8, 952=10.91; P<.001), and condom use (F8, 885=29.59; P<.001).


The risk perception attitude framework can serve as a theoretically sound audience segmentation technique that can be used to determine whether messages should augment perceptions of risk, beliefs about personal efficacy, or both.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center