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Blood Rev. 2010 Jan;24(1):39-47. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2009.09.001. Epub 2009 Oct 14.

Anemia in renal disease: diagnosis and management.

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Division of Nephrology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread health problem in the world and anemia is a common complication. Anemia conveys significant risk for cardiovascular disease, faster progression of renal failure and decreased quality of life. Patients with CKD can have anemia for many reasons, including but not invariably their renal insufficiency. These patients require a thorough evaluation to identify and correct causes of anemia other than erythropoietin deficiency. The mainstay of treatment of anemia secondary to CKD has become erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). The use of ESAs does carry risks and these agents need to be used judiciously. Iron deficiency often co-exists in this population and must be evaluated and treated. Correction of iron deficiency can improve anemia and reduce ESA requirements. Partial, but not complete, correction of anemia is associated with improved outcomes in patients with CKD.

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