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Costs of swimming measured at optimum speed: scale effects, differences between swimming styles, taxonomic groups and submerged and surface swimming.

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Department of Marine Biology, Groningen University, Haren, The Netherlands.


1. Data on swimming energy expenditure of 30 submerged and nine surface swimmers, covering different swimming styles and taxonomic groups, are selected from the literature. 2. The costs of transport at the optimum speed are compared and related to body mass and Re numbers. 3. Fish and turtles use relatively less and most surface swimmers slightly more energy than the other submerged swimmers; man and mink are poorly adapted to swimming. 4. The metabolic rate in W at optimum speed is approximately equal to the body mass in kg for fish and turtles and three times the mass figure for the other submerged swimmers.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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