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Water Res. 2010 Feb;44(3):879-85. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.09.053. Epub 2009 Sep 25.

Batch and column adsorption of herbicide fluroxypyr on different types of activated carbons from water with varied degrees of hardness and alkalinity.

Author information

1
Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain.

Abstract

There has been little research into the effects of the water hardness and alkalinity of surface waters on the adsorption of herbicides on activated carbons. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of these water characteristics on fluroxypyr adsorption on different activated carbons. At low fluroxypyr surface concentrations, the amount adsorbed from distilled water was related to the surface hydrophobicity. Surface area of carbons covered by fluroxypyr molecules ranged from 60 to 65%. Variations in fluroxypyr solubility with water hardness and alkalinity showed a salting-in effect. Calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions were adsorbed to a varied extent on the activated carbons. The presence of fluroxypyr in solution decreased their adsorption due to a competition effect. K(F) from the Freundlich equation linearly increased with water hardness due to salt-screened electrostatic repulsions between charged fluroxypyr molecules. The amount adsorbed from distilled water was largest at high fluroxypyr solution concentrations, because there was no competition between inorganic ions and fluroxypyr molecules. The column breakthrough volume and the amount adsorbed at breakthrough were smaller in tap versus distilled water. Carbon consumption was lower with activated carbon cloth than with the use of granular activated carbon.

PMID:
19822344
DOI:
10.1016/j.watres.2009.09.053
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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