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Pediatr Diabetes. 2010 Aug;11(5):351-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2009.00600.x.

Ketoacidosis at presentation of type 1 diabetes in children in Kuwait: frequency and clinical characteristics.

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1
Pediatric Endocrine Unit, Mubarak Alkabeer Hospital, Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. rasoulkt@yahoo.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has significant morbidity and mortality, and is common at diagnosis in children.

OBJECTIVE:

Describe the frequency and severity of DKA at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children in Kuwait.

METHODS:

Hospital records of 677 diabetic children less than 12 yr of age, diagnosed during the period of 2000-2006 were reviewed. DKA was defined as blood glucose > 11 mmol/L, pH < 7.3, and/or bicarbonate < 15 mmol/L with ketonuria.

RESULTS:

Of all patients diagnosed with T1DM, 255 (37.7%) presented with DKA. The frequency of DKA was constant between 2000 and 2002 (42.7-41.5%), but decreased in the following years to 30.7% in 2006 (p < 0.005). The majority had either mild or moderate DKA (74.1%). Fifty-one (36.7%) of all children in the 0-4 yr had severe DKA compared to ten (2.9%) in the 5- to 8-yr-old group, and three (1.5%) in 9- to 12-yr-old patients (p < 0.0001). Moreover, 83% of children with severe DKA were in the 0-4 yr age group. One child (0.15%) died and twenty-seven (4%) needed intensive care unit (ICU) care.

CONCLUSION:

Our study provides recent data on Middle Eastern population, for whom data are sparse. Although it has significantly decreased, the frequency of DKA at presentation of T1DM in children in Kuwait is still high, secondary to the high prevalence of diabetes in the community. Young children, especially those less than 2 yr old remain at high risk. Increasing the general awareness of the public as well as of pediatricians to the disease may lead to early diagnosis before the development of acidosis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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