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Plant Signal Behav. 2009 Jun;4(6):477-81. Epub 2009 Jun 12.

Evolution of CLE signaling: origins of the CLV1 and SOL2/CRN receptor diversity.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.


The shoot apical meristem is maintained by the intercellular factor, CLV3, a dodecapeptide in Arabidopsis. CLV3 belongs to the CLE family and putative CLE genes have been found in various plants, even in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Here, we report that a pteridophyte, Selaginella moelendorffii, also has 15 putative CLE genes in its genome. On the other hand, CLV1 is reported to function as a receptor for the CLV3 peptide, and other CLE peptides might be recognized by CLV1 homologues in various plants. Recent genetic studies of the crn and sol2 mutants of Arabidopsis have revealed that SOL2/CRN encodes a receptor-like kinase protein. SOL2/CRN functions together with CLV2 independently of CLV1 in the CLE signaling pathway. Phylogenetic analysis of CLV1, CLV2 and SOL2/CRN revealed that Arabidopsis, rice, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera have one copy of the SOL2/CRN and CLV2 homologues, and Selaginella moelendorffii and Physcomitrella patens have no homologues. In contrast, a number of CLV1 homologues were identified in the genomic databases of Arabidopsis, rice, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera, and even a pteridophyte, Selaginella moelendorffii, and a moss, Physcomitrella patens. These results indicate that CLV1 and its homologues play multiple roles in plant development and environmental responses, whereas SOL2/CRN and CLV2 have more specific roles in vascular plants.

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