Send to

Choose Destination
J Biol Chem. 2009 Dec 4;284(49):33926-38. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.023879. Epub 2009 Oct 7.

Global analysis of transcriptional regulation by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

Author information

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.


Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) are enzymes that modify target proteins by the addition and removal, respectively, of ADP-ribose polymers. Although a role for PARP-1 in gene regulation has been well established, the role of PARG is less clear. To investigate how PARP-1 and PARG coordinately regulate global patterns of gene expression, we used short hairpin RNAs to stably knock down PARP-1 or PARG in MCF-7 cells followed by expression microarray analyses. Correlation analyses showed that the majority of genes affected by the knockdown of one factor were similarly affected by the knockdown of the other factor. The most robustly regulated common genes were enriched for stress-response and metabolic functions. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, PARP-1 and PARG localized to the promoters of positively and negatively regulated target genes. The levels of chromatin-bound PARG at a given promoter generally correlated with the levels of PARP-1 across the subset of promoters tested. For about half of the genes tested, the binding of PARP-1 at the promoter was dependent on the binding of PARG. Experiments using stable re-expression of short hairpin RNA-resistant catalytic mutants showed that PARP-1 and PARG enzymatic activities are required for some, but not all, target genes. Collectively, our results indicate that PARP-1 and PARG, nuclear enzymes with opposing enzymatic activities, localize to target promoters and act in a similar, rather than antagonistic, manner to regulate gene expression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center