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Indian J Tuberc. 2009 Apr;56(2):69-76.

Post-HAART tuberculosis in adults and adolescents with HIV in India: incidence, clinical and immunological profile.

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Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine, Tambaram Sanatorium, Chennai 600 047.



Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) was introduced in National AIDS Control Programme in 2004 to reduce the morbidity and mortality among those affected with HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis, being an important coinfection, its emergence/occurrence in post-HAART period has potential implications.


Primary objectives were to study the incidence of post-HAART tuberculosis in HIV patients and to identify the possible risk factors. It was also intended to understand the clinical and immunological profile of this important condition.


Eligible adults and adolescents with HIV disease enrolled on HAART at Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine, Tambaram Sanatorium, Chennai, from April, 2004 to March, 2007, formed the study population. They were monitored and screened for the occurrence of tuberculosis after commencing HAART. Clinical details and immunological profile of these patients were analysed.


Two hundred and sixty-two patients (5.1%) of 5099 patients followed-up for one to four years were found to have Post HAART TB with 100-person year risk of 2.83. Post HAART TB occurred predominantly in men (67.6%) and in 31-44 years age group (69.8%) with 100-person year risk being 3.26 and 2.83 respectively. Pulmonary, Extra-pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis were found to occur in the frequencies of 78%, 16% and 6% respectively. A total of 144 patients (54.9%) developed tuberculosis within six months and this number increased to 202 (77%) by 12 months. 230 patients (87.7%) had base level CD4 cell count < 200 / mm3.


Tuberculosis was found to occur pre-dominantly in adult male patients with HIV during the first year after the initiation of HAART. Significantly, occurrence of Post HAART TB remained almost the same (5%) among patients treated for TB prior to the initiation of HAART.

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