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J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2009 Sep;48(5):521-6.

Enoxaparin treatment of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis in a chronically catheterized rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

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  • 1University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.


A chronically catheterized 14-y-old male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was reported for recurrent scrotal swelling. The scrotum was enlarged and warm to touch, and associated skin was noted to be lichenified on physical examination. The penis could not be extruded due to preputial swelling. Results from the following diagnostic tests were all unremarkable or within normal limits: scrotal aspirate, hematology, serum biochemistries, urinalysis, and radiography of the thorax, scrotum, and abdomen. Ultrasonography of lower extremities identified thrombi in bilateral iliac veins and left femoral vein. Collateral circulation surrounding the left femoral vein permitted some compensatory venous return. The left femoral vein of this animal had been catheterized approximately 2 mo before initial presentation. A coagulation panel revealed a positive D-dimer test, indicative of elevated levels of fibrin degradation products due to active thrombus breakdown. Enoxaparin sodium, a low-molecular-weight heparin for human use, was administered at 20 mg subcutaneously once daily for 10 d to treat occlusive venous thrombi. After enoxaparin treatment, the edema was greatly decreased. To achieve complete resolution, a second course of enoxaparin was administered 2 months after the first. Ultrasonography of the pelvic vasculature 6 mo after completion of therapy showed marked thrombus resolution, allowing for bilateral patency in the iliac and femoral veins. Follow-up evaluation revealed that D-dimer values were negative as well. This case demonstrates the novel application of the human medication enoxaparin to treat clinical signs of deep vein thrombosis in a chronically catheterized rhesus macaque.

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