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Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2001 Oct;1(1):25-36. doi: 10.1586/14737167.1.1.25.

Quantifying stochastic uncertainty and presenting results of cost-effectiveness analyses.

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Health Economics Research Centre, University of Oxford, Institute of Health Sciences, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK.


In the last decade, major advances have been made in the statistical methods for quantifying uncertainty in stochastic cost-effectiveness studies. In this paper, we provide a guide to the literature in which we highlight the preferred methods for confidence interval estimation, new developments in the formulation of the cost-effectiveness problem, suggested ways for presenting results and the areas in which future research may develop. The overall approach taken is nontechnical, with an emphasis on graphical rather than algebraic presentation of methods.


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