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Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2005 Aug;5(4):457-66. doi: 10.1586/14737167.5.4.457.

Economic burden of uncomplicated urinary tract infections: direct, indirect and intangible costs.

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Global HEOR Bayer Pharmaceuticals Corporation, 400 Morgan Lane, West Haven, CT 06516, USA.


A better understanding of how antimicrobial therapies affect the total cost of lower uncomplicated urinary tract infection, including direct (e.g., doctor visits), indirect (e.g., productivity) and intangible (e.g., pain) costs would facilitate selection of an optimal therapeutic approach. The results of this literature review indicate that the there is a considerable societal burden from uncomplicated urinary tract infection, with approximately USD 1 billion in indirect and over USD 600 million in direct costs in 1995. However, no single identified study incorporated all three cost components, there are gaps in the knowledge concerning the current extent of these costs, and there are no comparative assessments based on total cost. Research is needed to provide current insights on the burden of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in terms of direct, indirect and intangible costs.

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