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J Homosex. 2009;56(7):959-76. doi: 10.1080/00918360903187895.

Ethnic related variations from the cass model of homosexual identity formation: the experiences of two-spirit, lesbian and gay Native Americans.

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Department of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306, USA.


Synthesis of current research with the self-stories of Native American two-spirit, lesbian and gay people suggests differences in social locations that may produce sexual orientation identity development processes absent from the current literature. We employed a modified form of grounded theory analysis to explore the identity experiences of six self-identified two-spirit, lesbian or gay Native Americans recounted during in-depth interviews. The resulting five themes are presented with quotes from participants for clarification and support, along with a discussion of their fit with the Cass Model of Homosexual Identity Development and interpersonal congruency theory. Results suggest two developmental pathways, one following the course of Cass' model and a second path notable for its absence of many of the key experiences specified by Cass.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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