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Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010;338:145-58. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-02215-9_11.

Targeted mutagenesis as a rational approach to dengue virus vaccine development.

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1
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 33 North Drive, Room 3W10A, Bethesda, MD 20892-3203, USA.

Abstract

The recombinant dengue virus type 4 (rDEN4) vaccine candidate, rDEN4Delta30, was found to be highly infectious, immunogenic and safe in human volunteers. At the highest dose (10(5) PFU) evaluated in volunteers, 25% of the vaccinees had mild elevations in liver enzymes that were rarely seen at lower doses. Here, we describe the generation and selection of additional mutations that were introduced into rDEN4Delta30 to further attenuate the virus in animal models and ultimately human vaccinees. Based on the elevated liver enzymes associated with the 10(5) PFU dose of rDEN4Delta30 and the known involvement of liver infection in dengue virus pathogenesis, a large panel of mutant viruses was screened for level of replication in the HuH-7 human hepatoma cell line, a surrogate for human liver cells and selected viruses were further analyzed for level of viremia in SCID-HuH-7 mice. It was hypothesized that rDEN4Delta30 derivatives with restricted replication in vitro and in vivo in HuH-7 human liver cells would be restricted in replication in the liver of vaccinees. Two mutations identified by this screen, NS3 4995 and NS5 200,201, were separately introduced into rDEN4Delta30 and found to further attenuate the vaccine candidate for SCID-HuH-7 mice and rhesus monkeys while retaining sufficient immunogenicity in rhesus monkeys to confer protection. In humans, the rDEN4Delta30-200,201 vaccine candidate administered at 10(5) PFU exhibited greatly reduced viremia, high infectivity and lacked liver toxicity while inducing serum neutralizing antibody at a level comparable to that observed in volunteers immunized with rDEN4Delta30. Clinical studies of rDEN4Delta30-4995 are ongoing.

PMID:
19802584
PMCID:
PMC3405492
DOI:
10.1007/978-3-642-02215-9_11
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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