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Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Aug;136(2):149-56. doi: 10.1007/s12011-009-8531-6. Epub 2009 Oct 3.

The content of elements in rainwater and its relation to the frequency of hospitalization for diabetes and obesity in Opole Voivodship, Poland, during 2000-2002.

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Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Institute of Technology, Opole, Poland.


Environmental factors significantly influence the incidence and course of metabolic syndrome diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The content of elements in rainwater is an indirect indicator of their presence in dust suspended in the air. In this paper we present the relationships between the content of selected elements in rainwater and hospitalization frequencies due to diabetes (E10-E13) and obesity (E66). It was assumed that the hospitalization frequency could be taken as a measure of deterioration of the metabolic process in the course of diabetes and its complications. The observations concerned the population of Opole Voivodeship, Poland (one million inhabitants), distributed in small communities of 44,000 to 151,000 inhabitants during the years 2000-2002. In cases of diabetes E10-E13 for all subjects relevant correlation indicators were found for chromium (r = 0.71), cadmium (r = 0.65), and lead (r = 0.66). Borderline relevance was seen for copper (r = 0.57) and zinc (r = 056). For diabetic men the statistically relevant correlations were chromium (r = 0.79), lead (r = 0.77), cadmium (r = 0.74), copper (r = 0.70), chloride (r = 0.69), zinc (r = 0.68), and iron (r = 0.64). For women the only relevant correlations were chromium (r = 0.62) and cadmium (r = 0.55). No significant correlations were found in obese individuals of both sexes.

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