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Med Princ Pract. 2009;18(6):458-65. doi: 10.1159/000235895. Epub 2009 Sep 30.

Habitual snoring in primary school children: prevalence and association with sleep-related disorders and school performance.

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Department of Respiratory Disease, S├╝leyman Demirel University, TR-32200 Cunur Isparta, Turkey.



To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring (HS) and its association with both day- and nighttime symptoms, school performance and behavioral disturbances in a sample of primary school children.


A cross-sectional study was performed on 1,605 children (819 boys and 786 girls) aged 7-13 years from 9 randomly selected primary schools located within the city limits of Isparta, Turkey. HS and sleep problems were assessed using a 55-item multiple-choice questionnaire.


Of the 1,605 questionnaires, 1,164 were fully completed and returned, giving a response rate of 72.5%. The overall prevalence of snoring was 38.9%, while HS accounted for 3.5%. The prevalence of HS among boys (25, 3.0%) was higher than among girls (16, 2.0%; chi(2) for trend: p < 0.001, OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.01-3.66). There was an association between younger age and HS, as children aged 7-8 years had the highest prevalence (chi(2) for trend: 0.054, OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 0.81-4.22). Habitual snorers had more daytime and nighttime symptoms. Allergic symptoms, daytime mouth breathing, shaking the child for apnea, restless sleep and hyperactivity were significant and independent risk factors and sleep-related symptoms for HS. A significant and independent association was found between poor school performance and hyperactivity, nocturnal enuresis, tooth grinding and low parental/maternal education in multivariate analysis.


Children with HS were more likely to have sleep-related daytime and nighttime symptoms. No significant associ- ation was determined between HS and poor school performance.

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