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Allergy. 2010 Feb;65(2):256-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02159.x. Epub 2009 Oct 1.

Risk factors for allergic rhinitis in Costa Rican children with asthma.

Author information

1
Channing Laboratory, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Risk factors for allergic rhinitis (AR) in asthmatics are likely distinct from those for AR or asthma alone. We sought to identify clinical and environmental risk factors for AR in children with asthma.

METHODS:

We performed a cross-sectional study of 616 Costa Rican children aged 6-14 years with asthma. Candidate risk factors were drawn from questionnaire data, spirometry, methacholine challenge testing, skin testing, and serology. Two outcome measures, skin test reaction (STR)-positive AR and physician-diagnosed AR, were examined by logistic regression.

RESULTS:

STR-positive AR had high prevalence (80%) in Costa Rican children with asthma, and its independent risk factors were nasal symptoms after exposure to dust or mold, parental history of AR, older age at asthma onset, oral steroid use in the past year, eosinophilia, and positive IgEs to dust mite and cockroach. Physician-diagnosed AR had lower prevalence (27%), and its independent risk factors were nasal symptoms after pollen exposure, STR to tree pollens, a parental history of AR, inhaled steroid and short-acting beta2 agonist use in the past year, household mold/mildew, and fewer older siblings. A physician's diagnosis was only 29.5% sensitive for STR-positive AR.

CONCLUSIONS:

Risk factors for AR in children with asthma depend on the definition of AR. Indoor allergens drive risk for STR-positive AR. Outdoor allergens and home environmental conditions are risk factors for physician-diagnosed AR. We propose that children with asthma in Costa Rica and other Latin American nations undergo limited skin testing or specific IgE measurements to reduce the current under-diagnosis of AR.

PMID:
19796208
PMCID:
PMC2807901
DOI:
10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02159.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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