Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009 Oct;13(10):1231-7.

Prevalent infectious tuberculosis in Harare, Zimbabwe: burden, risk factors and implications for control.

Author information

Clinical Research Unit, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), London, UK.



Harare's high density suburbs.


To investigate the burden, duration and risk factors for prevalent tuberculosis (TB) and explore potential control strategies.


Randomly selected adults had TB culture, symptom screen and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology. Prevalent TB was defined as undiagnosed or still culture-positive. Notification data and HIV prevalence in TB out-patients were used to estimate duration of infectiousness (prevalence/estimated incidence).


Among 10 092 participants, 40 (0.40%, 95%CI 0.28-0.54) had prevalent smear-positive TB. HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.1, 95%CI 1.6-6.3, population attributable fraction [PAF] 33%), male sex (aOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.5-6.4, PAF 40%), and overcrowding (PAF 34%) were significant risk factors, with past TB treatment significant for HIV-negative participants only (PAF 7%). Recent household TB contact was not significant (PAF 10%). HIV prevalence was 21.1%; 76.9% of HIV-positive participants were previously untested. Duration of infectiousness was at least 18 weeks in HIV-positive and approximately 1 year in HIV-negative patients.


Overcrowding, male sex and HIV infection were major risk factors for prevalent smear-positive TB. Reducing diagnostic delay may have greater potential to improve the control of prevalent TB than interventions targeted at household contacts, TB treatment outcomes, or TB-HIV interventions under current levels of awareness of HIV status.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Ingenta plc Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center