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Discov Med. 2009 Aug;8(41):55-60.

Adipose tissue inflammation in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

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1
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Translational Systems Biology and Medicine Initiative, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 112-0033, Japan.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Playing a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome and in its clinical consequences is visceral obesity. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various humoral factors (adipokines), and its shift to production of proinflammatory cytokines in obesity likely contributes to the low-level systemic inflammation that is seen in metabolic syndrome-associated chronic pathologies such as atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that obesity induces chronic local inflammation in adipose tissue, and that cells of the innate immune system, particularly macrophages, are crucially involved in adipose inflammation and systemic metabolic abnormalities. Moreover, we and others recently revealed that T cells are key regulators of adipose inflammation, and that the adaptive immune system is also crucially important. In mouse models modulation of T cell function ameliorated not only adipose inflammation but also systemic insulin resistance induced by obesity. Thus clarification of the inflammatory processes ongoing in obese adipose tissue would seem essential for the understanding of metabolic syndrome and for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat it.

PMID:
19788868
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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