Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Nov 1;49(9):1369-76. doi: 10.1086/606048.

Intravenous immunoglobulin in children with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

Author information

  • 1Division of Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.



Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare and severe manifestation of group A streptococcal infection. The role of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for streptococcal TSS in children is controversial. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of streptococcal TSS in children and to determine whether adjunctive therapy with IVIG is associated with improved outcomes.


A multicenter, retrospective cohort study of children with streptococcal TSS from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2007 was conducted. Propensity scores were used to determine each child's likelihood of receiving IVIG. Differences in the primary outcomes of death, hospital length of stay, and total hospital costs were compared after matching IVIG recipients and nonrecipients on propensity score.


The median patient age was 8.2 years. IVIG was administered to 84 (44%) of 192 patients. The overall mortality rate was 4.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.8%-8.0%). Differences in mortality between IVIG recipients (n = 3; 4.5%) and nonrecipients (n = 3; 4.5%) were not statistically significant (p > .99). Although patients receiving IVIG had higher total hospital and drug costs than nonrecipients, differences in hospital costs were not significant once drug costs were removed (median difference between matched patients, $6139; interquartile range, -$8316 to $25,993; P = .06). No differences were found in length of hospital stay between matched IVIG recipients and nonrecipients.


This multicenter study is, to our knowledge, the largest to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of children with streptococcal TSS and the first to explore the association between IVIG use and clinical outcomes. IVIG use was associated with increased costs of caring for children with streptococcal TSS but was not associated with improved outcomes.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center