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J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009 Oct;18(10):1679-86. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2008.1329.

Human papillomavirus vaccine uptake, predictors of vaccination, and self-reported barriers to vaccination.

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Department of General Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.



To describe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake, predictors of vaccination, and barriers to vaccination in young women.


Participants were 13-26-year-old girls and women recruited from an urban, hospital-based clinic. Between June and December 2007, 6 months after they had completed a baseline survey, they were recontacted to assess receipt of at least one HPV vaccine dose and barriers to receiving the vaccine. We assessed whether demographic factors, gynecological history, and attitudes measured at baseline were associated with vaccination at follow-up using logistic regression.


Of the 262 women who completed the baseline study, 189 (72%) participated in this follow-up study. At follow-up, 68 of 189 (36%) had received >or=1 HPV vaccine dose. Factors measured at baseline that predicted vaccination 6 months later included insurance coverage for HPV vaccination (odds ratio [OR] 5.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-17.49) and the belief that one's parents, partners, and clinicians endorsed HPV vaccination (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.29-3.79); those with a history of an abnormal Pap test were less likely to have received the vaccine (OR 0.30, CI 0.10-0.92). Of the 121 who were unvaccinated, 54 (45%) had not returned to the clinic since the baseline study, 51 (42%) had returned but were not offered vaccine, and 15 (12%) had declined vaccination.


Interventions to increase HPV vaccination rates in women in the catch-up age group for vaccination should ensure that vaccine costs are covered, promote HPV vaccination as normative, and establish clinic-based systems to prevent missed opportunities for vaccination.

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