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J Med Chem. 2009 Oct 22;52(20):6447-55. doi: 10.1021/jm9009873.

Nanomolar potency pyrimido-pyrrolo-quinoxalinedione CFTR inhibitor reduces cyst size in a polycystic kidney disease model.

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Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0521, USA.


Inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel are predicted to slow cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease and reduce intestinal fluid loss in secretory diarrheas. Screening of approximately 110000 small synthetic and natural compounds for inhibition of halide influx in CFTR-expressing epithelial cells yielded a new class of pyrimido-pyrrolo-quinoxalinedione (PPQ) CFTR inhibitors. Testing of 347 analogues established structure-activity relationships. The most potent compound, 7,9-dimethyl-11-phenyl-6-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-pyrimido[4',5'-3,4]pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline-8,10-(7H,9H)-dione, PPQ-102, completely inhibited CFTR chloride current with IC(50) approximately 90 nM. The PPQs, unlike prior CFTR inhibitors, are uncharged at physiological pH, and therefore not subject to membrane potential-dependent cellular partitioning or block efficiency. Patch-clamp analysis confirmed voltage-independent CFTR inhibition by PPQ-102 and showed stabilization of the channel closed state. PPQ-102 prevented cyst expansion and reduced the size of preformed cysts in a neonatal kidney organ culture model of polycystic kidney disease. PPQ-102 is the most potent CFTR inhibitor identified to date.

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