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Diabetes Educ. 2009 Sep-Oct;35(5):843-50. doi: 10.1177/0145721709342901.

Organizational factors associated with self-management behaviors in diabetes primary care clinics.

Author information

The Department of Health Care Administration, Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas (Dr Kaissi)
The Veterans Evidence-Based Research Dissemination Implementation Center, San Antonio, Texas (Dr Parchman)
The Department of Family and Community Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas (Dr Parchman)



The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between organizational characteristics as measured by the Chronic Care Model (CCM) and patient self-management behaviors among patients with type 2 diabetes.


The study design was cross-sectional. The study setting included 20 primary care clinics from South Texas. The sample included approximately 30 consecutive patients that were enrolled from each clinic for a sample of 617 patients. For the data collection procedures, the CCM survey was completed by caregivers in the clinic. Self-management behaviors were obtained from patient exit surveys. For measures, the CCM consisted of 6 structural dimensions: (1) organization support, (2) community linkages, (3) self-management support, (4) decision support system, (5) delivery system design, and (6) clinical information systems. Patient self-management behavior included whether the patient reported always doing all 4 of the following behaviors as they were instructed: (1) checking blood sugars, (2) following diabetes diet, (3) exercising, and (4) taking medications. For data analyses, to account for clustering of patients within clinics, hierarchical logistic regression models were used.


Self-management support was positively associated with medication adherence, while decision support system was positively associated with exercise and all 4 self-management behaviors. Surprisingly, community linkages were negatively associated with medication adherence, while clinical information system was negatively associated with diet and all 4 behaviors. A total score, including all dimensions, was positively associated with only exercise.


Health care providers and diabetes educators in primary care clinics should consider how organizational characteristics of the clinic might influence self-management behaviors of patients. The focus should be on better access to evidence-based information at the point of care and self-management needs and activities.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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