Send to

Choose Destination
J Biomech. 2009 Dec 11;42(16):2678-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Sep 27.

Inertial sensor-based knee flexion/extension angle estimation.

Author information

Centre for Rehabilitation and Human Performance Research, University of Salford, UK.

Erratum in

  • J Biomech. 2010 Feb 10;43(3):598. McMillian, Louise [corrected to McMillan, Louise].


A new method for estimating knee joint flexion/extension angles from segment acceleration and angular velocity data is described. The approach uses a combination of Kalman filters and biomechanical constraints based on anatomical knowledge. In contrast to many recently published methods, the proposed approach does not make use of the earth's magnetic field and hence is insensitive to the complex field distortions commonly found in modern buildings. The method was validated experimentally by calculating knee angle from measurements taken from two IMUs placed on adjacent body segments. In contrast to many previous studies which have validated their approach during relatively slow activities or over short durations, the performance of the algorithm was evaluated during both walking and running over 5 minute periods. Seven healthy subjects were tested at various speeds from 1 to 5 mile/h. Errors were estimated by comparing the results against data obtained simultaneously from a 10 camera motion tracking system (Qualysis). The average measurement error ranged from 0.7 degrees for slow walking (1 mph) to 3.4 degrees for running (5 mph). The joint constraint used in the IMU analysis was derived from the Qualysis data. Limitations of the method, its clinical application and its possible extension are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center