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Microsc Microanal. 2004 Dec;10(6):804-9.

The impact of charging on low-energy electron beam lithography.

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Quantiscript Inc., 2500 boul. Université, Sherbrooke, Québec J1K 2R1, Canada.


A major issue in low voltage lithography is surface charging, which results in beam deflection presented as uneven exposure between adjacent structures. In this study, charge-induced pattern distortions in low-voltage energy beam lithography (LVEBL) were investigated using a silicide direct-write electron beam lithography process. Two methodologies have been proposed to avert charging effects in LVEBL, namely, pattern randomizing and lithography using the crossover voltage. Experimental results demonstrated that these methods are effective in significantly reducing the problems associated with charging. They indicate that charging on a sample is a function of time interval and proximity between line structures. In addition, the optimum time and distance between exposures for no charge-induced pattern distortion were determined. By using the crossover voltage of the material for lithography, charging effect can be significantly minimized.

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