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J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2009;2(3):149-58. doi: 10.1159/000235565. Epub 2009 Sep 23.

Omega-3 fatty acids, genetic variants in COX-2 and prostate cancer.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, University of California-San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.

Abstract

Dietary intake of fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) may decrease the risk of prostate cancer development and progression to advanced stage disease. This could reflect the anti-inflammatory effects of PUFAs, possibly through mediation of cyclooxygenase (COX), a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. Despite promising experimental evidence, epidemiological studies have reported somewhat conflicting results regarding the effects of fish/PUFAs on prostate cancer development and progression. The literature suggests that fish, and particularly long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, may have a more pronounced protective effect on biologically aggressive tumors or on their progression, and less on early steps of carcinogenesis. Moreover, the impact of LC omega-3 PUFAs may be modified by variation of the COX-2 gene. Overall, results to date support the hypothesis that long-chain omega-3 PUFAs may impact prostate inflammation and carcinogenesis via the COX-2 enzymatic pathway.

PMID:
19776642
PMCID:
PMC2820568
DOI:
10.1159/000235565
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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