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Hemodial Int. 2009 Oct;13 Suppl 1:S24-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-4758.2009.00416.x.

Does concurrent renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade in (older) chronic kidney disease patients play a role in the acute renal failure epidemic in US hospitalized patients?--Three cases of severe acute renal failure encountered in a northwestern Wisconsin Nephrology practice.

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1
College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. onuigbo.macaulay@mayo.edu

Abstract

Following the publication of several large multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trials showing reno-protection with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) blockade, the last 2 decades have witnessed an escalating use of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and the angiotensin receptor blockers. Simultaneously, we continue to experience an increasing epidemic of acute renal failure (ARF) both in community-based and in hospital-based studies. Even though other factors would be contributing to this ARF epidemic, recent published data have raised concerns of a plausible connection between increased use of the RAAS blocking agents and this ARF epidemic. In our 4-nephrologist northwestern practice, we have, in recent years, anecdotally encountered an increasing number and severity of ARF, often with hyperkalemia, sometimes requiring dialysis intervention, in patients concurrently on these agents. Over the 3-day Christmas weekend in 2007, we treated 3 cases of severe ARF (peak serum creatinine of 7.0 (3.3-9.2) mg/dL), all on RAAS blockade. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade was promptly discontinued. All patients received intravenous fluid repletion. Kidney function rapidly normalized in 2 within 1 week. One patient required hemodialysis for 14 days before his serum creatinine returned to normal after 5 weeks. All 3 patients have continued to maintain baseline serum creatinine several months later, still off RAAS blockade. The mean baseline eGFR for the 3 patients was 46 (41-51) mL/min/1.73 m(2) body surface area. This phenomenon of ARF exacerbation, which may have implications for chronic kidney disease progression to ESRD especially in the elderly, merits further study. We support the recommendation that (older, >65 years old) chronic kidney disease patients on RAAS blocking agents should have the medications temporarily suspended during any acute illness, before major surgical procedures, and before iodinated contrast or oral phosphate sodium administration.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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