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BMC Public Health. 2009 Sep 22;9:356. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-356.

A systematic review of longitudinal studies on the association between depression and smoking in adolescents.

Author information

1
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. michael.chaiton@utoronto.ca

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It is well-established that smoking and depression are associated in adolescents, but the temporal ordering of the association is subject to debate.

METHODS:

Longitudinal studies in English language which reported the onset of smoking on depression in non clinical populations (age 13-19) published between January 1990 and July 2008 were selected from PubMed, OVID, and PsychInfo databases. Study characteristics were extracted. Meta-analytic pooling procedures with random effects were used.

RESULTS:

Fifteen studies were retained for analysis. The pooled estimate for smoking predicting depression in 6 studies was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.40; p < 0.001). The pooled estimate for depression predicting smoking in 12 studies was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.63; p < 0.001). Studies that used clinical measures of depression were more likely to report a bidirectional effect, with a stronger effect of depression predicting smoking.

CONCLUSION:

Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that the association between smoking and depression is bidirectional. To better estimate these effects, future research should consider the potential utility of: (a) shorter intervals between surveys with longer follow-up time, (b) more accurate measurement of depression, and (c) adequate control of confounding.

PMID:
19772635
PMCID:
PMC2758872
DOI:
10.1186/1471-2458-9-356
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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